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Publication numberCA2263754 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCA 2263754
PCT numberPCT/US1997/014218
Publication date26 Feb 1998
Filing date13 Aug 1997
Priority date16 Aug 1996
Also published asEP0939640A1, EP0939640A4, US6060518, WO1998007434A1
Publication numberCA 2263754, CA 2263754 A1, CA 2263754A1, CA-A1-2263754, CA2263754 A1, CA2263754A1, PCT/1997/14218, PCT/US/1997/014218, PCT/US/1997/14218, PCT/US/97/014218, PCT/US/97/14218, PCT/US1997/014218, PCT/US1997/14218, PCT/US1997014218, PCT/US199714218, PCT/US97/014218, PCT/US97/14218, PCT/US97014218, PCT/US9714218
InventorsAlexander V. Kabanov, Valery Yulievich Alakhov
ApplicantAlexander V. Kabanov, Supratek Pharma Inc., Valery Yulievich Alakhov
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: CIPO, Espacenet
Improvements in polymer compositions for chemotherapy and methods of treatment using the same
CA 2263754 A1
Abstract
Improved antineoplastic compositions comprising an antineoplastic agent combined with a pluronic and a water-soluble non-toxic homopolymer resulting in a decrease of toxicity and/or an increase in anti-cancer activity, and methods of treatment using such formulations.
Claims(11)
1. In a pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-neoplastic agent, the improvement in which said agent is incorporated into micelles of at least one amphiphilic block copolymer and at least one of a water-soluble homopolymer and random copolymer.
2. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the block copolymer comprises poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene).
3. A composition according to claim 2 wherein the poly(oxypropylene) portion of said block copolymer comprises at least 50% by weight of the block copolymer.
4. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the molecular mass range for the nontoxic water-soluble homopolymer or random copolymer is from about 0.5 x 10 3 to about 0.5 x 10 5.
5. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the nontoxic water-soluble polymerconcentration is from about 1x10 -4 to about 25% w/v.
6. A composition according to claim 5 wherein the nontoxic water-soluble polymers are selected from the group consisting of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide copolymers, poly(ortho esters), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(vinyl alcohol), polysaccharides and derivatives thereof.
7. A composition according to claim 1 wherein the water- soluble nontoxic homopolymer is poly(ethylene oxide).
8. A composition according to claim 1 wherein said anti-neoplastic agent is an anthracycline antibiotic.
9. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the anthracycline antibiotic is selected from the group consisting of doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and epirubicin.
10. A composition according to claim 1 wherein said antineoplastic agent is doxorubicin, said block copolymer is Pluronic L61 and said homopolymer is PEO.
11. A method of treating a mammal suffering from neoplasm comprising administering to said mammal a therapeutic amount of a composition according to claim 1.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

CA 022637~4 1999-02-lO

W O 98/07434 PCTrUS97/14218 IMPROVEMENTS IN POLYMER COMPOSITIONS FOR CHEMOTHERAPY AND
SMETHODS OF TREATMENT USING THE SAME

The present invention relates to improvements in antineoplastic formulations andmethods of treatment using such improved form~ tions.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

A variety of antineoplastic agents are presently in use in chemotherapy. See generally Cuttings Handbook of Pharmacology, 7th Ed., Chapter 13, Scaky and Barnes. However, because of their often complex structure, antineoplastic agents are known to exhibit low stability in the bloodstream. Often, chemotherapeutic agents are exkemely insoluble, and are thus poorly transported across cell membranes. Additionallv, the effective amount of antineoplastic agents can be greatly reduced through binding of such agents with15 plasmoproteins, as well as other non-specific interactions in the bloodstream oceurring prior to the agents reaching the target. Multidrug recict~n~e (MDR) is a further eomplic~tion observed with sueh ehemotherapeutie agents, resulting in host re~i~t~n~e to strueturally differ-ent antineoplastie agents.

Certain antineoplastic agents currently in use have demonstrated toxicity in patients. It is 20 thus desirable to either {i} decrease toxicity of these compositions, {ii} increase their overall anti-cancer activity, or {iii} both. It is similarly desirable to overcome MDR in patients receiving chemothe.~ ic agents.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The above difficulties can be overcome by ~dmini~tration of antineoplastic agents 25 incorporated into a composition comprising an ~mphirhilic block copolymer and a non-toxic water-soluble homopolymer or random eopolymer.

The invention thus relates to improved compositions compri~in~ an antineoplastic agent combined with an ~mphirhilic block copolymer and a water-soluble non-toxic homopolymer or random polymer. It has been found that this combination results in {i3 a decrease of CA 022637~4 1999-02-10 W 098/07434 PCTrUS97114218 toxicity, {ii} an increase in anti-cancer activity, or {iii} both. The combinations are further capable of re~ cing or avoiding MDR in patients suffering from neoplasm.

The advantageous properties of the resultant compositions are achieved through the combination of at least one antineoplastic agent, a water-soluble or random non-toxic 5 polymer, and a hydrophobic copolymer, i.e., where the copolymers contain poly(oxypropylene), or POP, content greater than 50 percent.

In one embodiment, the recited homopolymers are water soluble. These polymers can be ionic or capable of being ionically charged in a pH-dependent marmer. The plcr, lled molecular mass range for the nontoxic water-soluble homopolymer or random copolymer is from about 0.5 x 103 to 0.5 x 105. The preferred concentration of these polymers in mixture is from about 1 x 10 1 to about 25% w/v.

Where a homopolymer is used, the homopolymer is preferably poly(ethylene oxide), or PEO. Where block copolymers are used, the block copolymers are preferably poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxy~luyylene) block copolymers. In these POE-POP block 15 copolymers, it has been found that hydrophobe (POP) concentrations greater than 50% are advantageous.

The block copolymers of poly(oxyethylene)-poly(oxypropylene) generally are characterized by one of the following structural formulae:

_ CH3 _ _ _ H~CH2CH2~ 1HCH20 CH2CH2~--H

x y z (I) or:

- -I -x y (II) or:

.~

CA 022637~4 1999-02-lO

W O 98/07434 PCTrUS97/14218 X y Z

(III) in which each of x and z, independently of one another, has a value of from about 5 to about 100, and y has a value of from about 20 to about 80. Such block copolymers are known. See Schmolka, Loc. Cit., 82(7), 25-30 (1967); Stanton, Am. Perfumer. Cosmet., 72(4), 54-58 (1958); and Nonionic Surfactants, Schick, Ed., 300-371 (Dekker, NY, 1967). A number of these copolymers are commercially available under the generic names of "pluronics" and "poloxamers".

The hydrophobic/hydrophilic IJrupc~lies of a given block copolymer are dependent upon the ratio of oxypropylene groups to the number of oxyethylene groups. Selecting the ratio of o~y~lo~ylene groups to oxyethylene groups involves the use of ~ es of di~;enl block copolymers of POE-POP to achieve an optimal balance for a given anti-neoplastic agent, or mixture of anti-neoplastic agents, preserving the optimal particle size.

A variety of copolymers are suitable for use in the present invention. The present compositions can utilize, but are not limited to, the following copolymers:

CA 022637~4 1999-02-lo wo98107434 PCTAUS97/14218 PluronicHydrophobe WeightHydrophobe Percentage L31 950 90%
F35 950 50%
L42 1200 80%
L43 1200 70%
L44 1200 60%
L61 1750 90%
L62 1750 80%
L63 1750 70%
L64 1750 60%
P65 1750 50%
F68 1750 20%
L72 2050 80%
P75 2050 50%
L81 2250 90%
P84 2250 60%
P85 2250 50%
F87 2250 30%
F88 2250 20%
L92 2750 80%
F98 2750 20%
L101 3250 90%
P103 3250 70%
P104 3250 60%
P105 3250 50%
F108 3250 20%
L121 4000 90%
L122 4000 80%
L123 4000 70%
F127 4000 30%
lOR5 1000 50%
lOR8 1000 20%
12R3 1200 70%
17R2 1700 80%
17R1 1700 90%
17R2 1700 80%
17R4 1700 60%
17R8 1700 20%
22R4 2200 60%
25R1 2500 90%
25R2 2500 80%
25R4 2500 60%
25R5 2500 50%
25R8 2500 50%
31R1 3100 90%
31R2 3100 80%
31R4 3100 60%

CA 022637~4 1999-02-10 It has been found that the effectiveness of the block copolymers of the instant invention in Ánh~ncing the potency of chemothc.d~euLic drugs, decreasing toxicity, and/or in recl~ ing or reversing MDR depend upon the hydrophobe percenlage and the hydrophobe weight.
Overall effectiveness of the compositions has been found to increase with an increase in 5 either hydrophobe weight, hydrophobe pc~ ge~ or both. It has been found for Px~ ,le that L61 is more ~rr~ilive than P85 which in turn is more effective than F108, which in turn is more effective than F68. One skilled in the art, however, can readily ~letl~.~nine the most preferable copolymer based upon the specific cirC~mct~n~es of its int~n~l.od use.

In accordance with the present invention, the preferred homopolymer is poly(ethylene 10 oxide), or PEO, represented by the formula:

-- n wLc.ehl n is such that the molecular mass range of PEO is from about 0.5 x 103 to about 0.5 x 105. More l,.ere.l~;d is from about 1 x103 to about .2 x 105, and most plcr~ d is from about 1.5 x 103 to about .15 x 105.

The present application is not, however, limited to the use of PEO. Other water-soluble polymers will work in accordance with the present invention. Suitable water-soluble polymers include without limitation: N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide copolymers, poly(ortho esters), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(vinyl alcohol), polys~c~h~ritles and their derivatives, including dextrane and hto.p~rin In a most ~l~r~ ,d embodiment, the composition comIri~es doxorubicin as the antineoplastic agent, Pluronic L61 as the block copolymer, and PEO. Other anthracycline antibiotics such as daunorubicin and epirubicin are similarly most p~ d. Pluronic L61 is characterized by hydrophobe (POP) content of at least about 90%. It will be appreciated, however, that the present invention is not limited to the recited hydrophobic pluronic polymers.

A variety of aillhleoplastic agents are suitable for use in accordance with the present invention. These include, but are not limited to, alkaloids such as vinblastine, colchicine, and demecoline; anthracycline antibiotics, including those of the rhodomycin group (e.g, daunorubicin, doxorubicin or epirubicin), those of the mitomycin group CA 022637~4 1999-02-10 Wo 98/07434 PCT/US97/14218 (e.g, mitomycin C and N-methyl~ o-llycin C), those of the bleomycm group (e.g, bleomycin A2), and antifolates (including methotrexate, aminopteran, and (lid~ e!,~hydrofolic acid). Mixtures of several of these agents is contemplated within the scope of the invention.

It will be appreciated that the invention is not directed to the underlying anti-neoplastic activity of these agents, but rather to an improvement in the manifestation of this activity through formulation. The present compositions can be ~lminictered parenterally in aqueous forrnulations, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents, including other antineo-plastic agents, steroids, etc., to a m~mm~l suffering from neoplasm and in need of treatment.
Such parelltelal routes of ~flminickation include intramuscular, inkathecal~ intrape~;Loneal, inkavenous, and intra-arterial. Isotonic micellular solutions of one or more block copolymers incorporating one or more antineoplastic agents can be used for parenteral ~lminictration.
Dosages typically are those associated with the specific antineoplastic agent, although the regimen must be titrated to the particular neoplasm, the condition of the patient, and the specific response. Thus, the specific dosage will be detÁrmin~tl by the ~tten~ing physician or caretaker, based upon the individual circ~lmct~ncÁc of the patient. For example, an isotonic micellular solution of daunorubicin is ~rlminictered to provide about 1 mg of daunorubicin per kg of body weight. In conkast, vinblastine is ~lminictered in a similar fashion, but in accordance with convell~ional usage at lower dosages from about 0.1 to 0.2 mg per kg of body weight.

The following examples will serve to further typify the nature of the invention, but should not be conskued as a limitation on the scope thereof, which is defined solely by the appended claims.

Example 1 Preparation of Three-Component Composition Comprising Pluronic L61, Doxorubicin, and PEO
Doxorubicin (Sigma, St. Louis) was dissolved at different concenkations in sterilized water (Prep. A). Polyethylene oxide (PEG ~000, Sigma, St. Louis) was then dissolved in PBS at a concentration of 10% w/v, and Pluronic L61 (BASF) (0.2% w/v) was added. The mixture obtained was stirred at 4~C until optical}y kansparent (about 45 min~tes)~ (Prep. B).

W 098/07434 PCTrUS97114218 Prep. B was then sterilized by filtration through a 0.2 ~M filter. Prep. A and Prep. B were then mixed together in equal proportions (Prep. C) and incubated at 37~C for 30 min-~tes.

FY~n~ple 2 S In Vitro Evaluation of Anticancer Activity on Lewis Lung Carcinoma (3LL) Cell Line A highly metastatic clonal Lewis Lung Carcinoma cell subline H-59 (3LL) was used to evaluate cytotoxic activity of Prep. C and colllp~e it with that of doxorubicin. To this end, the cells were suspended in RPMI 1640 medium suppl~m~ntecl with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated at 2000-3000 cells/well into 96-well mierotiter plates. Prep. C in whieh doxorubicin final concentrations varied from 1 to 10,000 ng/ml was added to the cells and ineubated for 2 hours at 37~C and 5% CO2. The cells were then washed three times with RPMI 1640 and cultured for 4 days. Drug cytotoxicity was detenninf~d by a standard XTT
assay. To this end, sterile 1 mg/ml XTT solution in RPMI 1640 co,.~ ing 5 ~ll/ml of 1.54 ,ug/ml ph~n~7in~ m~th~ lf~te solution in sterile PBS was added to the eells (100 ~ll/well) and ineubated for 4 to 16 hours at 37~C and 5% CO2. The abso~ ee at ~420 was determined using a mieroplate reader. All the expÁrim~nt~ were carried out in triplieate. SEM values were less than 10% (P<0.05). the eoneentrations of free doxorubiein and doxorubiein in Prep. C produeing 50% inhibition of eell growth (ICso) are presented in Table 1.
Table l P~ ion IC50, ng/ml doxorubiein Prep. C 40 Doxorubiein 110 F.Y~nlple 3 Effect of Three Component Composition on Metastasis Development A highly met~t~tie clonal subline H59 of Lewis Lung, Carcinoma (3LL-H59) was used as a model. This cell line was established using the s.c. grafting of a rare spontaneous 30 lung met~tzlci.c detPcted in a mouse bearing a 3LLc s.c. tumor in the axillary region.

CA 022637~4 l999-02-lO

WO 98/07434 PCTrUS97/14218 Previous studies showed that this cell line exhibits a good pattern of organ-selective met~ts~ These cells were cultured in D-MEM supplemented with 10% FCS at 37~C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2. After 7 to lO passes in culture, the cells in their log~ lic growth phase were harvested with trypsin for the following ~x~elhllents.

Anim~l~. Female C57BL/6 mice were obtained from Charles River Canada Inc. (St.
Constant, Quebec, Canada) and used at 6 to 7 weeks of age. Animals were grouped five per cage with air filter cover under a light (12-h light/dark cycle, light on at 06hOO) and temperature-controlled environment (22 ~ 1 ~C). All manipulations of animals were 10 pc~ lled under a stÁrili7~d laminar. The animals had ad libitum access to Purina Mouse Chow (Pro Lab PMH 4018, Tr~clem~rk of Agway, Syracuse, New York) and water. Animal studies were con~ cted according to the "Guidelines for Care and Use of Experimental .Anim~

15 The ~nim~l~ were injected i.v. with the cells (5 x 105 cells/animal) and were randomly divided into the four groups (10 animals per group). The animals received the following tre~tm~ntc 1) Control (isotonic solution), 2) Dox (S.Omg/kg), 3) Dox/L61 [(5.0mg/kg)/(0.25%w/v)], 4) Dox/L61/PEG8000 [(5.0mg/kg)/(0.25%w/v)/(1%w/v)]. Injection volumes were lOOul per animal for all ~ .hllental groups. The tre~tmpnt~ were performed 3 times at Day 1, Day 4 20 and Day 7 after tumor inoculation.

At Day 16 after tumor inoculation, the animals were sacrificed and subjected to routine m~t~t~ci~ inspection. All organs were routinely screened, although m~t~ct~tic formations were normally tletecte~l only in the lung. Met~ct~tic colonies on the organ surface were 25 enumerated imme~ t~ly following removal of the organs. Where the number of mt~t~t~tic nodules on the organ surface was equal to or greater than 50, the animal was considered to have 50 ~ sites. The results are presellled in Table 2. The data are ~ s~ed as means ~ SEM for the number of metastatic sites and as the pe.celll~ge of the ~nim~lc having m~t~t~Ci~ for the incid~nt~e of met~t~ development. Statistical significance was30 calculated according to the multiple range test of Duncan-Kramer. Analysis of the incid~n~e of metastasis development was done using the Fisher's exact test.

Wo 98/07434 PCT/Us97/14218 Table 2 GroupNumber of metast. sites on lung p~ ,hel y Incidenl~e %
+SEM
Control >50 100 Dox 8.9012.56 100 Dox/L61 0.67~0.55 20 Dox/L61/PEG O ~

FY~n~?le 4 Effect of Compositions on WBC Count ~11~, The same as in F~mrle 3.

10 ~nim~lc. The same as in Example 3.

The animals were injected i.v. with the cells (5 x 105 cells) and randomly divided into four groups (10 animals per group). The animals received the following tre~trn~nt~: 1) Control (isotonic solution), 2) Dox (5.0mg/kg), 3) Dox/L61 [(S.Omg/kg)/0.25%w/v)], 4) Dox/L61/PEG8000 ~(5.0mg/kg)l(0.25%wlv)l(1~/Ow/v)]. The injection volumes were lOOul per animal, for all e~pPrimPn groups. The tre~tm~nt~ were performed 3 times at Day 1, Day 4 and Day 7 after tumor inoculation.

At Day 16 after tumor inoc~ tion~ the blood samples (20 ul) were collected from the lateral tail vein.
Each sample was supplPmPnt~d with 400 ul of 3% acetic acid, i~ b~rd for 20 mimlte~, and the nurnber 20 of leukocytes was counted (WBC per ml blood).

The results are presented in Table 3. l he data were treated by Student's criteria and expressed as means + SEM.

W O 98/07434 PCTrUS97/14218 Table 3 Group WBC count per ml of blood ~SEM
Control 12346+834 Dox 2134~321 Dox/L61 5478~235 Dox/L61/PEG 10358+978

Classifications
International ClassificationA61K31/704, A61K9/107, A61K47/34, A61P35/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61K31/704, A61K9/1075
European ClassificationA61K9/107D, A61K31/704
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